Every body structure is wrapped in connective tissue, or fascia, creating a structural continuity that gives form and function to every tissue and organ. Currently, there is still little information on the functions and interactions between the fascial continuum and the body system; unfortunately, in medical literature there are few texts explaining how fascial stasis or altered movement of the various connective layers can generate a clinical problem. Certainly, the fascia plays a significant role in conveying mechanical tension, in order to control an inflammatory environment. The fascial continuum is essential for transmitting muscle force, for correct motor coordination, and for preserving the organs in their site; the fascia is a vital instrument that enables the individual to communicate and live independently. This article considers what the literature offers on symptoms related to the fascial system, trying to connect the existing information on the continuity of the connective tissue and symptoms that are not always clearly defined. In our opinion, knowing and understanding this complex system of fascial layers is essential for the clinician and other health practitioners in finding the best treatment strategy for the patient.”
By Bruno Bordoni and Emiliano Zanier
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This article is very interesting to help with the visualization of this very important muscle called the Diaphragm. In Osteopathy, the Diaphragm is a key structure to assess; it is also called the main breathing muscle.
The Diaphragm has many anatomical connections with visceras/internal organs: two main blood vessels go through it (vena cava and abdominal aorta), its movement during inhalation and exhalation encourage intestinal transit/bowel movements, helping to drain the body toxins, and it also delimits the boundary between the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity. Therefore, the Diaphragm muscle is a key area to check due to its implication in the balance between the thoracic pressure and the abdominal pressure. Any dysfunction affecting this muscle will have consequences on the body function.
The diaphragm muscle should not be seen as a segment but as part of a body system. This muscle is an important crossroads of information for the entire body, from the trigeminal system to the pelvic floor, passing from thoracic diaphragm to the floor of the mouth: the network of breath. Viola Frymann first spoke of the treatment of three diaphragms, and more recently four diaphragms have been discussed. Current scientific knowledge has led to discussion of the manual treatment of five diaphragms. This article highlights the anatomic connections and fascial and neurologic aspects of the diaphragm muscle, with four other structures considered as diaphragms: that is, the five diaphragms. The logic of the manual treatment proposed here is based on a concept and diagnostic work that should be the basis for any area of the body: The patient never just has a localized symptom but rather a system that adapts to a question.”
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